Wim J.C. Weren, «The Use of Isaiah 5,1-7 in the Parable of the Tenants (Mark 12,1-12; Matthew 21,33-46)», Vol. 79 (1998) 1-26
This article attempts to prove the following theses. The parable of the tenants in Mark 12,1-12 has been constructed on the basis of the vineyard song in Isa 5,1-7. There are connections with the Hebrew text as well as with the LXX version. The later exegesis of Isa 5,1-7 as it is found in the Targum and in 4Q500 has also left traces in the parable. The connections with Isaiah were already present in the original form and they are enlarged in the subsequent phases of the tradition. Matthew has taken almost all references from Mark but he additionaly made links to Isa 5,1-7 which he did not derive from Mark.
Matthew has omitted only one reference to Isa 5: in 21,37 he simply uses ui9o/j, without a0gaphto/j. On the other hand, he copied a number of references to Isa 5,1-7 verbatim from Mark. These include o9 ku/rioj tou~ a0mpelw~noj (Matt 21,40; Mark 12,9), klhronomi/a (Matt 21,38; Mark 12,7) and parabolh/ (Matt 21,33; cf. Mark 12,1: parabolai/). Even more important is the sense that the early Jewish idea that the vineyard from Isa 5 is a reference to the temple, echoes in the background in both gospels. The debate between Jesus and the Jewish leaders after all takes place in the temple and is introduced by the question into the authority which Jesus had previously displayed when he dissociated himself in a prophetically critical manner from the function of the temple as a cult centre.
I will now address the question of whether Matt 21,33-46 also contains parallels to Isa 5,1-7 which cannot have been derived from Mark. This is indeed the case. I will mention three examples.
(a) The Hebrew text from Isa 5,7 contains a double wordplay (+p#$m / xp#&m and hqdc / hq(c) which is imitated in neither the LXX nor the Targum, but we do find a counterpart in Matt 21,41 (kakou\j kakw~j ...).
(b) The verb qls (= to take away, to remove) in Targum Isa 5,5 corresponds to ai1rw in Matt 21,43 50. In the Targum, God says that he will take his Shekhinah away from Israel; in Matthew Jesus declares that the kingdom of God will be taken away from the Jewish leaders (u9mi~n and a0f 0 u9mw~n!) with whom he is talking 51.
(c) Matt 21,43 mentions "a nation that produces the fruits of the kingdom". The combination of poie/w + karpou/j is a description of correct moral behaviour. Matthew has a predilection for this expression; we find it in Matt 3,8.10 (cf. Luke 3,8.9); Matt 7,17-19 and 12,33 (cf. Luke 6,43) and in Matt 13,26. We may therefore consider this an idiom peculiar to Matthew; however, it is interesting that his choice of words shows remarkable similarities to Isa 5,1-7. I