John Kilgallen, «Hostility to Paul in Pisidian Antioch (Acts 13,45) — Why?», Vol. 84 (2003) 1-15
Throughout Acts 13–14 Luke brings to the reader’s knowledge opponents of Paul who are called " the Jews" . The present essay attempts to clarify the meaning of this short-hand identification of Paul’s Jewish opponents. It seems best to understand these particular Jews in the light of zealotry which has its roots in centuries of vigorous defense of Jewish religious convictions.
Twelve) preaches is essentially what Jesus preaches. Thus, by his very manner of presentation, Luke makes clear that what the third generation hears and responds to is nothing more or less than the faithful re-statement of what Jesus had said. The theme of continuity of the contents of the preaching is of the greatest importance for Luke. In short, the Gentiles are asked to embrace the salvation Yahweh offers to His People, which is faith in Jesus, and the blessings promised to Abraham and his offspring will follow38; it is this offer which ‘the Jews’ do not believe is ‘from Yahweh’, but it is what makes Paul a credible Christian Apostle to the Gentiles39.
One might be hard put to say that Luke was a close associate of Paul, or that he was a travel companion of Paul; but whatever one considers to be their relationship, one has to admit that Luke has centered the Pauline and Jewish concern for forgiveness of sins and justification on faith (o( pisteu/wn) in Jesus: it is he who believes who will be forgiven and considered just by God40. By what is no longer said, i.e., one need be a physical descendant of Abraham to be justified–by the absence of that assertion in this speech, one understands what the Jews, particularly ‘the Jews’, understood Paul to offer to the Gentiles.