Cornelis Bennema, «Spirit-Baptism in the Fourth Gospel. A Messianic Reading of John 1,33», Vol. 84 (2003) 35-60
The various ways of understanding "baptism in the Holy Spirit" has caused much division in both academic scholarship and the church. Most theories have been based on the Synoptics and Acts, but the phrase o( bapti/zwn e)n pneu/mati a(gi/w| is also present in the Fourth Gospel (1,33). However, Johannine scholarship has hardly given attention to this concept. This paper will seek to establish that o( bapti/zwn e)n pneu/mati a(gi/w| is a programmatic statement for Jesus’ nexus of soteriological activities in relation to people by means of the Spirit. "To baptize with Holy Spirit" refers to Jesus’ programme of cleansing people through revelation by means of the Spirit. Moreover, this concept is rooted in Jewish messianic traditions, which were able to expect a messiah who would judge, restore and cleanse by means of his Spirit-imbued word.
where the LXX translates +b#$ ["rod"] by lo/goj). In sum, the messianic concept in Psalms of Solomon is strongly rooted in Isaiah 11, and the primary means by which the Messiah will carry out his task of judgement and cleansing is his Spirit-imbued revelatory word/teaching.
The Similitudes of Enoch or 1 Enoch 37–71 (which can be dated between 50 BCE and 70 CE) also depicts a messianic figure, called "Son of Man", "Elect One" (cf. Isa 42,1), "Righteous One", "Messiah"31, who is endowed with the Spirit of wisdom, knowledge, might and righteousness (49,3; 62,2; cf. Isa 11,2), and who will exercise judgement and bring "salvation" to the righteous (e.g., 45,3; 46,4-5; 48,7; 49,4; 50-51; 52,9; 55,4; 61,8-9; 62,2-3; 69,27-29). He will judge the wicked by the word of his mouth (62,2; cf. 61,9), which reflects Isaiah 11,4 (LXX), and he will reveal (life-giving?) wisdom to the righteous (48,7). It would probably not be too wide of the mark to suggest that this messianic figure is able to reveal wisdom because he himself is endowed with the Spirit of wisdom. Moreover, he can judge in righteousness (50,4; 62,3) and wisdom (the word of his mouth in 62,2 corresponds to the wisdom of his mouth in 51,3) precisely because the Spirit has endowed him with these qualities (cf. 51,3). Thus, the Similitudes also draws on Isaiah 11 (and 42) to picture a messianic figure who will judge the wicked and reveal wisdom to the righteous by means of his Spirit-imbued word.
4 Ezra (dated at the end of the first century CE) describes a scene of judgement in the so-called "eagle vision" (11,36-12,3) in which the lion is explicitly identified as the Messiah (12,31-32). Although the "man from the sea" in 13,1-13 is not explicitly identified as the Messiah, the similarity in task, the allusions to Isaiah 11, and the parallel between 13,25-26 and 12,32 strongly suggest that this figure is none other than the Messiah. This messianic figure will judge the wicked and deliver the righteous (12,32-34; 13,10-13.25-50)32. The Messiah will destroy the wicked by means of, inter alia, a flaming xwr from his lips (13,10-11), which resembles closely the killing of the wicked by the xwr of his lips in Isaiah 11,4. Although 2 Baruch (compiled around the same time