The aim of this essay is to analyze the angelologic world of the Targum Jonathan of Joshua. The 'angels' in Josh 6,25 and 7,22 are considered in the Targum as 'messengers' of flesh and blood. Although 'angels' as noncorporeal emissaries of God do not appear explicitly in Joshua, 'the commander of the Lord’s army' in 5,15 is interpreted by the targumists as 'an angel sent from before the Lord'. After presenting his description in the Targum, we discuss his identity and mission. On the basis of biblical, pseudepigraphal and targumic sources, we claim that the angel is Michael.
Commentators on 1 Samuel 8 offer a variety of interpretations about what the requested king is expected to replace: judgeship, YHWH himself, or Israel's covenant identity. This article demonstrates that none of these proposals account for the Biblical text adequately. It is proposed instead that the king is intended to replace the Ark of the Covenant. The king will then manipulate YHWH into leading in battle. This is what ancient Near Eastern kings were able to do with their gods, and what the ark failed to do in 1 Samuel 4.
After comparing Matt 12,11-12 with its synoptic parallels (Mark 3,4; Luke 13,15-16; 14,5) and with texts that discuss the treatment of animals on the Sabbath (e.g., CD 11.13-14), the passage is compared with Philonic texts (Spec. 2.89; 4.218; Virt. 81, 133, 139-140, 160; cf. Plutarch, Cato 5.5; Esu carn. 996A; Iamblichus, Vit. Pythag. 30.186; Porphyry, Abst. 3.26.6) in which the Alexandrian discerns a principle informing a law that refers to the treatment of animals, and then suggests that the principle applies by analogy to the treatment of people, illuminating the principle with reference to mercy and similar concepts.
This article attempts to demonstrate that the unexpressed subject of tete/lestai in John 19,30 is 'all things' (pa/nta) rather than 'it', and that this subject should be supplied from the phrase pa/nta tete/lestai found earlier in the passage (John 19,28). The essay also argues that the two occurrences of 'all things' (John 18,4 and 19,28.30) encapsulate the passion narrative, and that this phrase is related to other Johannine themes in content and time frame (i.e. the 'hour', the 'cup', and the Passover).
Chains or bonds are a standard feature of representations of Paul in early Christianity. In the narrative of Acts 21–28 they appear to be an element of literary iconography employed by 'Luke the painter'. This iconography begins with Paul himself, who interpreted his bonds as worn 'in Christ' (Phil 1,13) and himself as 'prisoner of Christ Jesus' (Phlm 1.9). The Deutero-Pauline Epistles follow suit: In Colossians and Ephesians the bonds appear as the iconographical attribute, while in 2 Timothy they are perceived and tackled as a problem. In any event, Paul is remembered as the Apostle in fetters.
In Hab 1,14, Habakkuk complained that God had made the human targets of Babylonian aggression to be like leaderless aquatic animals. Aquatic animals are leaderless, not because they have a leader who is absent or inept, but because they simply have no leaders. Habakkuk was complaining then that God had made the targets of Babylonian aggression to have no governance system of their own. He was complaining, therefore, about the cataclysm of 586 BCE, when the native political system in Judah - the Davidic monarchy and its administrative apparatus - ceased to exist and the people of Judah were absorbed into the Babylonian Empire.
This short note examines the three occurrences of Paraite/omai in Heb 12,18-29 and suggests that the repeated use of the word demonstrates the author's evaluation of Israel's 'request' for distance from God at Sinai as a rejection of his word to them. While some have distinguished the meaning (and referent) of Paraite/omai in 12,19 from that in 12,25, this distinction is unsustainable in light of the use of Paraite/omai outside of Hebrews and of the flow of thought in Heb 12,18-29.