In Antiquities Josephus says that Herod was only fifteen-years-old when appointed strategos of Galilee in 47 BCE. This is often dismissed as scribal error and corrected to twenty-five, because it contradicts other Herodian biographical information. However, this unattested emendation does not fit the immediate context, whereas 'fifteen' does. This paper suggests that rather than a scribal error, this is a literary motif, presenting Herod as a particularly young military hero. The specific age of fifteen may have had a deeper intention, fictively linking Herod's birth to the year 63, the year of Augustus' birth and Pompey's conquest of the Temple.
Scholarly consensus with regard to Behemoth and Leviathan in Job 40,15-24 and 40,25-41,26 emphasizes the evil and danger inherent in both. Behemoth is usually identified as the hippopotamus and Leviathan as the crocodile or a mythological dragon. The present article accepts the former identification but argues that Leviathan in the Theophany (as in Psalm 104,26) is based on the whale. The Theophany marginalizes the evil and dangers of the beasts. The author has left their hostility and violence in the background and has made them less aggressive and menacing, though still powerful, indomitable, and awesome.
The term, hmx, is a frequent descriptor of anger in the Bible. Notably, its syntactic context depends on whether hmx describes human anger or the anger of God. The syntax of human hmx highlights the experience of being aggrieved whereas the syntax of divine hmx emphasizes the consequence of provocation. As such, human hmx tends to be the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of passive verbs that describe the experience of being provoked. By contrast, divine hmx tends to be the object of transitive verbs and the subject of passive verbs that describe God’s reprisal. Additionally, divine hmx occurs as part of the curious construct &alquo;cup of hmx&rlquo;. We believe that these observations reflect an underlying struggle to reconcile the anthropomorphic idea of an emotional God with an omnipotent and invulnerable deity.
The theme of fear is to be found in the gospel of Luke not only in connection with the central revelations of glory — in the account of the birth and transfiguration as well as in the chapter on the resurrection — but also in several miracle stories. In the light of Luke 9,43 Jesus’ mighty deeds, which give rise to fear in those present, appear as the visible aspect of his heavenly glory. This understanding of revelation echoes the revelation theology of the Book of Exodus which interprets the signs and wonders which Israel experiences in the context of the departure from Egypt as the soteriological aspect of God’s glory revealed on Sinai. Jesus as the Holy One of God, who, like the God of Exodus, arouses revelation fear, is to be understood against this background.
The greed motif is found in biblical and in ANE texts. The Baal Cycle characterizes Mot, the god of death and drought, as a destroyer of life. With in Ugarit’s polytheistic system, Mot is nonetheless essential for agricultural growth. Mot’s greed is, thus, a terrible, yet inevitable, factor. The analysis of (lb (to devour, swallow) in the Hebrew Bible reveals a significant alteration. In the Old Testament, “greed” is a negative human attitude in socio-economic conflicts. In opposing greed the God of Israel addresses those who practice it and those who suffer from it as human beings.
In addition to the scene conventionally known as "the Annunciation" (Luke 1,26-38), three other texts in the infancy narrative qualify to be classed as such. This article proposes an understanding of 2,8-20; 2,22- 35; 2,41-52 as annunciation pericopes by highlighting the fact that other characters, namely, the shepherds, Simeon, and Jesus function as messengers communicating to Mary further information about her son. It identifies the messenger, the act of speaking, the message, and the reference to Jesus' mother in each of the four scenes. Luke's infancy narrative, so the argument runs, contains four annunciation scenes in which a progressive revelation about Jesus addressed to his mother takes place.
This article develops the Christological implications of the three-fold grammatical interpretation of specific passive occurrences of verbs that designate transference with Jesus as the verbal subject. The discussion considers the Greek conceptualizations of transference and motion, the conditions that accommodate a three-fold grammatical interpretation of passive occurrences, and procedures for evaluating the contextual viability of these grammatical interpretations. The discussion then identifies verbal occurrences that admit to a three-fold interpretation with Jesus as subject, clarifies their traditional English translations, and develops the Christological implications of the three-fold interpretation of verbs in Mark 14,41, Heb 9,28, and Acts 1,11.
This paper argues that the terms wydb( and wyk)lm in Job 4,18 should be understood as referring to the set motions of the sun, moon, and stars as well as to sporadic meteorological events, respectively. Such understanding does not dilute the validity and force of the qal wahomer in 4,18-19. The comparison is between the inanimate but permanent (sun, moon, stars, meteorological phenomena) and the animate but impermanent (humans). The difficult hlht is assumed to have been originally hhflft;@ from hhl, «languish, faint». Taking hlht as having the meaning «weakness» provides a sense that eminently fits a natural event.