This paper proposes a new interpretation of Eph 4,12 based on a rhetorical analysis of the thought in the section (4,7-16). This structural approach has favored the interpretative clues provided by the text itself and has clarified the meaning of a NT hapax legomenon (katartismo/v). The prepositional sequence in Eph 4,12 expresses agreement (pro/v + accusative), purpose (eiv) and result (eiv), in this order. Such an interpretation, in accordance with the train of thought of the whole section, stresses a relationship of agreement between Christ’s gift and the ministry of the Word for building up his body.
Scholars have long debated whether "caris" in 1 Pet 2,19-20 should be understood as the unmerited favor which is divinely bestowed upon those who please God, or whether it represents a human action that secures a favorable response from God. What interpreters have continued to overlook, however, are the ancient social dynamics which underlie this passage. By interpreting "caris" within the framework of reciprocity and gift-exchange in the Greco-Roman world, this study brings fresh perspective to a problem which has long divided scholarship, and also suggests a new direction for understanding the letter's theology of suffering.