In this article I compared Assyrian expansion as presented in the Bible with that presented in the Assyrian sources. Then I pointed out the problems of the historical events presented in the Bible. Combining these problems with the results of source-criticism I argued that the biblical 'distortion' of the historical events was intentional. The writers probably did it to offer their interpretation of the downfall of Assyria. This presentation and organization of the events can be explained in terms of the historiography of representation. By applying this concept it is possible to explain several textual and historical problems of these chapters.
The story about Israel’s war against their brother Benjamin (Judg 20) is told from Israel’s perspective. Benjamin almost does not get a word in edgeways. But the fight against their 'brother' Benjamin is only then successful, when Israel shows confidence in God by weeping, fasting and making sacrifices. Conspicuous repetitions and syntactical disturbances point to a thorough revision. If one pays attention to the distinction of names — 'sons of Israel' and 'man of Israel' — and to the differences in structure and strategy, dates and times, numbers and theology, then the second account of the last fighting (20,36c-47) turns out to be a part of an independent tradition. A younger narrator added to this old narrative, that the 'sons of Israel' learned to inquire of God after two setbacks, and God helped them to defeat Benjamin, their 'brother'. The contribution of the deuteronomistic and priestly redactions is relatively small.
Recent research in the school papyri of Egypt, especially Oxyrhychus, has illuminated our understanding of the pedagogical process in the Greco-Roman world. Particularly interesting in this respect is the acquisition and social function of grapho-literacy (i.e., the ability to compose writing). Since few were literate, and of those few, fewer could read than could write, understanding how one gained grapho-literacy, who gained grapho-literacy, and how that literacy was employed in day to day life shines new light on passages such as 1 Cor 16,21, Gal 6,11, Col 4,18, 2 Thess 3,17, and Phlm 19. In these passages, Paul draws attention to the fact that he has personally written in the text. This paper will argue that these passages are not merely interesting asides, but rather significantly heighten the rhetorical force of the text. They draw attention not only to Paul’s grapho-literacy, but also to his ability to avoid using it.
Analysis of 4QPseudo-Ezekielb (4Q386) fragment 1 columns I-II reveals that this parabiblical Qumran composition stands in a more intricate dialogue with biblical tradition than previously assumed. This article refines previous argument that contrasted the apocalyptic vision of resurrection in 4QPseudo-Ezekiela (4Q385) fragment 2 to the prophetic vision of national restoration in MT Ezekiel 37 (/ MasEzek). 4QPseudo-Ezekielb 1 i-ii exhibits an apocalyptic vision which incorporates both resurrection for the pious in Israel and an eschatologized notion of restoration. Textual dialogue in Pseudo-Ezekiel together with textual tradition in Papyrus 967 attest to an eschatological reading of Ezekiel 37 constituting an early part of biblical tradition.
While studies of the Old Greek (OG) of Daniel 7,13-14 are not uncommon, they are often undertaken as part of a broader examination of the 'one like a son of man'. Rarely, if ever, do these studies focus on the description of this figure in the OG version and what readers of this version might have understood of this character. This study is an examination of the interpretation of OG Daniel 7,13-14, and the argument is made that the OG portrays the 'one like a son of man' as similar to the Ancient of Days and as a messianic figure.
It is argued that Q constructs a two-stage Son of Man Christology. The first stage presents a suffering figure whose experiences align with the contemporary situation and liminal experience of the audience of Q. The second stage focuses on the future return of the Son of Man. It is at this point that group members will receive both victory and vindication. However, these two stages are not always maintained as discrete moments. By employing the title 'the coming one', Q at some points collapses this temporal distinction to allow the pastorally comforting message that some of the eschatological rewards can be enjoyed in the contemporary situation of the community.
The author suggests a Christological reading of Heb 9,11 in the sense that the genitive tw~n genome&nwn a)gaqw~n is understood as a genitivus qualitatis referring to the virtues that Christ obtained during his earthly life through his suffering. With regard to the problem of textual criticism, the interpretation argues for genome&nwn instead of mello/ntwn.
Contrary to the conventional rendering of qcwm Myh (1 Kgs 7, 23), the name of the huge water basin in the Solomonic Temple, as the 'Molten Sea', the author suggests that qcwm Myh should be seen as one of the cultic proclamations declared during the New Year festival and should be translated 'The Sea has been constrained!'
Ps 149,5 can be understood from the literary motif of intensified spiritual activity and receptivity in resting time, particularly in the night. Formally, the statement of this verse is related to Cant 3,1. In vv. 5-9 the psalm describes the feelings and mental images of YHWH’s faithful with regard to a future judgement on the nations. The consciousness of Israel’s special position, expressed in the preceding hallelujah-psalms as well, is brought to a climax.
There are some salient points of contact between the narrative of Babel, Gen 11:1-9, and the vision of the New Jerusalem, Rev 21:1–22:5. These parallels are starkly contrastive. Among the most stunning parallels are the way man’s initiative is underscored in Gen, while God’s initiative is emphasized in Rev. Human accomplishment appears to be at the heart of the narrative in Genesis, whereas God’s accomplishment is presented in Rev. Moreover, worldly reputation is set in opposition to heavenly fame, as well as a worldwide dispersion in Gen as it is being contrasted with a worldwide unification in Rev. The essay’s conclusion is that the protological text is brought to fulfillment in the eschatological one in an inverse archetypal sense.